Sessions are used to retain the state in your app. A session is represented by an instance of a Session class. Together with an instance of a Json object it can be used to enable client-server communication and synchronization using JSON patch.

Session Instance

A new session is created by calling the constructor on Session class. To set the new session as active session, it's necessary to assign it to the static property Session.Current.

When multiple apps are running, only one of them needs to create the Session object and set is as active, because the session identifies the browser tab, not only your app in that tab. Therefore, you always need to check before creating a new session if Session.Current is null.

Each browser tab is a separate state of the UI. Therefore, each tab is tied to its own session. This makes it totally different from the session concept in frameworks like ASP.NET or Zend, where a session stores data from all the browser tabs.

Starting with Starcounter there is a static method, Session.Ensure(), that can be used as simplification of the pattern described above that does this check and makes sure that a session with options enabled for patch-versioning and namespaces is set (if not already set) as current and returned. This method can be used everywhere where a session should be created if Session.Current is null.

DateTime createdDate = Session.Ensure().Created; // Session.Ensure() will never be null.

Once you have the session, you have the possibility to attach state to it. In Starcounter, the state is represented by a Jsoninstance (also called a view-model). The session contains a storage where any number of Json instances can be kept, using a string as key. This storage is separated per app, so each running app has it own section and can only access it's own state.

From Starcounter, Session.Data have been obsoleted and replaced with Session.Store. Also Json.Session is obsoleted. Session should be obtained by using Session.Current or Session.Ensure().

Json state1 = new Json();
Json state2 = new Json();
Session session = Session.Ensure();
session.Store["state1"] = state1;
session.Store["state2"] = state2;
state1 = session.Store["state1"]

The storage on the session is server-side only. Nothing stored using Session.Store will be exposed to a client. This is a change in behavior of using the old obsoleted Session.Data. See the next section on how to attach a Json to be used for client-server communication

Client-Server Synchronization with JSON Patch

One additional feature when using Session, besides keeping state on the server, is that it can enable client-server synchronization using JSON Patch. In short it allows the client and server to send deltas instead of the full viewmodel.

When this is used, the client can send http requests using the PATCH verb (HTTP PATCH method) or use websocket to send and receive patches.

To enable this, the session needs to know which Json instance should be considered the root viewmodel. If the PartialToStandalone middleware is used, the root viewmodel will be automatically assigned to the session based on the Jsoninstance returned from a handler.

There is also a way to manually specify which Json instance to use as root, session.SetClientRoot(json). This functionality is included as an extension method instead of directly in the session class. The extension-method can be found in the Starcounter.XSON.Advanced namespace.

From Starcounter the handling of determining root viewmodel on session have changed. Session.PublicViewmodel and Session.Data have been obsoleted and should no longer be used to set client root. Instead use the information in the section above.

The whole root viewmodel can be obtained on the client using HTTP GET verb with a url that is sent in the Location header for the response of the request that created the session. The location contains a specific identifier for the session and viewmodel that is calculated for each session to be non-deterministic.

Session Properties

The Session object exposes a few useful properties, including:




Session creation time (UTC).


Session last active (a receive or send occurred on a session) time (UTC)

Sessions Timeout

Inactive sessions (that do not receive or send anything) are automatically timed out and destroyed. Default sessions timeout (with 1 minute resolution) is set in database config: DefaultSessionTimeoutMinutes. Default timeout is 20 minutes. Each session can be assigned an individual timeout, in minutes, by setting TimeoutMinutes property.

Session Destruction Callback

User can specify an event that should be called whenever session is destroyed. Session destruction can occur, for example, when inactive session is timed out, or when session Destroy method is called explicitly. User specified destroy events can be added using Session.AddDestroyDelegate on a specific session.

Session can be checked for being active by using IsAlive method.

Operating on Multiple Sessions

Session is created on current Starcounter scheduler and should be operated only on that scheduler. That's why one should never store session objects statically (same as one shouldn't store SQL enumerators statically) or use session objects in multithreaded/asynchronous programming. In order to save session and utilize it later please use Session.SessionIddescribed below.

One can store sessions by obtaining session ID string (Session.SessionId). Session strings can be grouped using desired principles, for example when one wants to broadcasts different messages on different session groups. When the session represented by the string should be used, one should call Session.RunTask(String sessionId, Session.SessionTask task). This procedure takes care of executing action that uses session on the scheduler where the session was originally created. This procedure underneath uses Scheduling.RunTask thereby it can be executed from arbitrary .NET thread.

There is a variation of Session.RunTask that takes care of sessions grouped by some principle: Session.RunTask(IEnumerable<String> sessionIds, Session.SessionTask task). Use it if you want to operate on a group of sessions, like in the following chat app example:

public class SavedSession
public string SessionId { get; set; }
public string GroupName { get; set; }
Session.RunTask(Db.SQL<SavedSession>("SELECT s FROM GroupedSession s WHERE s.GroupName = ?", myGroupName).Select(x => x.SessionId).ToList(), (Session session, string sessionId) =>
var master = session.Data as MasterPage;
if (master != null && master.CurrentPage is ChatGroupPage)
ChatGroupPage page = (ChatGroupPage)master.CurrentPage;
if (page.Data.Equals(this.Data))
if (page.ChatMessagePages.Count >= maxMsgs)
page.ChatMessagePages.Add(Self.GET<Json>("/chatter/partials/chatmessages/" + ChatMessageKey));

To schedule tasks on all active sessions, then Session.RunTaskForAll should be used (note that it runs on all active sessions and if you only need to update few - use Session.RunTask).

Transmission of the Session Identity

Current session is determined and set automatically before user handler is called.

Starcounter Gateway uses one of the following ways to determine the session that should be used for calling user handler.

  • Location + X-Referer or Referer headers: Using HTTP protocol, when creating a new session, the response will contain the Location HTTP header with the value of a newly created session. Client code later can extract this session value from the received Location header and use the session in subsequent requests, using either of the specified ways. Often X-Referer or Referer request headers are used to specify the session value.

  • Session as handler URI parameter: Session value can be specified as one of URI parameters when defining a handler, for example:

Handle.GET("/usesession/{?}", (Session session, Request request) =>
// Implementation
  • Session Cookie:

Use of automatic session cookie and the property UseSessionCookie have been obsoleted. Instead enable adding a header on outgoing response by setting property UseSessionHeader to true and optionally specify name of header with SessionHeaderName (default X-Location).

The priorities for session determination, for incoming requests, are the following (latter has higher priority than previous): session on socket, Referer header, X-Referer header, session URI parameter.

Session Options

The Session constructor has an overload that takes the enum SessionOptions. This enum has five options:




Is the default behavior of Session, declaring new Session(SessionOptions.Default) is the same as using the default constructor.


Was added for Starcounter 1.x and does not serve a purpose anymore. Is the same as using the default constructor.


Enables operational transformation with Palindrom. Thus, PatchVersioning is required for communication with Palindrom.


Throws an error instead of rejecting changes in two cases: (1) when an incoming patch tries to access an object or item in an array that is no longer valid and (2) when the client sends a patch with a different format than expected.


Enables namespacing of Typed JSON responses. This is the default behavior and is thus the same as using the default constructor.


JSON patches are calculated whenever there's an incoming request that asks for JSON patch. This means asynchronous changes to the view-model that are finished after the response is sent will not be included in the response patch.

For example, if a user clicks a button to send an order, the user expects to see a confirmation message when the order has been sent. Since the operation is scheduled on a separate thread that executes asynchronously to avoid blocking, the task to send the order will finish after Starcounter has sent the response. This means that the user will not see the status message until they send another patch that triggers a response that includes the status message.

void Handle(Input.SendOrderTrigger _)
Session.RunTask(Session.Current.SessionId, (session, id) =>
Order.StatusMessage = "Done";
}); // The user will not see the status message until they send another patch

To fix this, use CalculatePatchAndPushOnWebSocket. That lets the user see the status message immediately after the order has been sent.

void Handle(Input.SendOrderTrigger _)
Session.RunTask(Session.Current.SessionId, (session, id) =>
Order.StatusMessage = "Done";

When calling CalculatePatchAndPushOnWebSocket, Starcounter traverses the JSON tree and calculates the difference between the current and previous tree. It then sends patches to the client with the changes.